The difference between human trafficking and human smuggling
Human smuggling is about crossing national borders and violating a country's laws, human trafficking on the other hand is about the subsequent exploitation, which is usually done in the destination country.
Igor wants to leave his home country in Eastern Europe to make money in another country. He is unemployed in his home country. He contacts an acquaintance who can bring him to Austria without any valid documents. This trip to Austria costs Igor 5,000 Euros. Hidden in trucks and cars, he manages to illegally enter Austria with the help of smugglers. After his arrival in Austria, he cuts off the contact with the smugglers.
In his home country, Nikola receives a job offer to work at a construction site in Austria. His acquaintance promises him a good pay. Nikola accepts this doubtful agreement. After the illegal entry into Austria, the employer takes his passport away from him. He is not allowed to move around freely anymore. He has to work under inhumane conditions: he lives with other workers in a narrow shipping container. He hardly gets anything to eat or drink. He is constantly under surveillance. He receives almost no pay for his work.